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:: Volume 7, Issue 2 (9-2019) ::
jgit 2019, 7(2): 43-62 Back to browse issues page
Comparison of Different Targets Used in Augmented Reality Applications in Ubiquitous GIS
Mina Karimi *, Abolghasem Sadeghi Niaraki, Ali Hosseini Naveh
K.N. Toosi University of Technology
Abstract:   (1115 Views)
Drilling requires accurate information about locations of underground infrastructures or it can cause serious damages. Augmented Reality (AR) as a technology in Ubiquitous GIS (UBIGIS) can be used to visualize underground infrastructures on smartphones. Since smartphone’s sensors do not provide such accuracy, another approaches should be applied. Vision based computer vision systems are well known approaches to collect data of camera poses. Some vision systems track objects by image processing of natural environments which is quite difficult in unknown environments. Most vision systems are designed to detect targets. This paper aims to compare different types of targets that can be used in AR applications in UBGIS. For this propose, first three types of targets are being overviewed, then targets are compared in terms of their square or circular shapes. Finally, two kinds of targets related to Agisoft and Australis modeling software are chosen and images are being taken in different sincidence angles related to center of images at the area of faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology. Then automatic recognition results in both software tools were being compared and analyzed. Comparisons reveal that QRCode is not appropriate due to its square shape and its distance limitation to scan by reader, because in AR applications, targets should be placed in a large field of view. Also, squared targets are not very suitable because their recognition is not easy. Therefore, Fiducial Markers are not recommended. It is worth mentioning that circular targets are the best target for this application. Among circular targets, although detection of circular Coded Target is not easy especially in very low incidence angle, but unrelated objects are not recognized as Coded Target; while detection of simple circular Target will make lots of mistakes. Generally, choosing appropriate target depends on corresponding application and usage. Then sensor-based and vision-based approaches to visualize underground infrastructures are compared. The results demonstrate that vision-based approach improve the precision of pose estimation parameters 8.10260 m in position parameters and 10.36 degrees in orientation parameters. Therefore, targets can be used as a vision-based approach.
Keywords: Target, Ubiquitous GIS, Augmented Reality, Underground Infrastructures, Agisoft, Australis.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: GIS
Received: 2017/11/1 | Accepted: 2018/02/5 | Published: 2019/09/22



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Karimi M, Sadeghi Niaraki A, Hosseini Naveh A. Comparison of Different Targets Used in Augmented Reality Applications in Ubiquitous GIS. jgit. 2019; 7 (2) :43-62
URL: http://jgit.kntu.ac.ir/article-1-715-en.html


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Volume 7, Issue 2 (9-2019) Back to browse issues page
نشریه علمی-پژوهشی مهندسی فناوری اطلاعات مکانی Engineering Journal of Geospatial Information Technology
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